Second Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah
Captain E Crossland, commanding Company C, 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry
First Kentucky Battalion Infantry
Arrived at Manassas Junction under the command of Major Colonel T Claiborne at 12 AM on 22 July, 1861, and was not present at the first battle of Manassas
LIEUTENANT COLONEL H B DUNCAN
At the first battle of Manassas Lieutenant Colonel H B Duncan volunteered for duty on the staff of General J E Johnston.
MAJOR T CLAIBORNE
Major T Claiborne, Confederate States Army, assistant adjutant general to Colonel A Elzey, Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, was assigned on 16 July, 1861, at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
- Company A Harvey Rifles: Capt. J B HARVEY
The company was organised under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel H B Duncan at Louisville, Kentucky, on 23 April, 1861, and was formerly known as the Duncan Rifles. The company was assigned to the 1st Kentucky Infantry, Company A, in August, 1861 (See the 1st Kentucky Infantry).
- Company B Cornwall Guards: CAPT. M LAPaiLLE
Captain M Lapaille resigned on 15 August, 1861, and was replaced by Captain C A Withers on 23 August, 1861, at 'Camp Bartow', Virginia. The company was organised under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel H B Duncan at Louisville, Kentucky, on 23 April, 1861, and was assigned to the 1st Kentucky Infantry, Company B, in August, 1861 (See the 1st Kentucky Infantry).
- Company C Alexander Guards: CAPT. E CROSSLAND
The company was organised at Nashville, Tennessee, on 23 April, 1861, and was assigned to the 1st Kentucky Infantry, Company E, in August, 1861 (See the 1st Kentucky Infantry).
- Company D: CAPT. C C Bowman
First Lieutenant C P Duncan was commanding the company as captain by 7 August, 1861. The company was organised at Murray, Kentucky, on 23 April, 1861, and was assigned to the 1st Kentucky Infantry, Company F, in August, 1861 (See the 1st Kentucky Infantry).
"Two companies, averaging one hundred and fourteen men each, were recruited in Louisville, at the corner of Fifth and Jefferson streets, at once upon the outbreak of the war, under command of Captains B. M. Anderson and F. Van Osten. On the 20th of April, 1861, they left by steamer from the foot of Fourth street, with a Secession flag flying, for New Orleans. At Owensboro a third company, commanded by Captain J. Thompson, was embarked on the same vessel. From New Orleans the companies were ordered to Richmond, and were there organised as the Third Kentucky Battalion, with Anderson as major."
"Only three days after the departure of the first Louisville companies, two more, averaging one hundred apiece, raised in the city, under the auspices of Blanton Duncan, and one of whose commanders Captain Lapaille, departed on the Louisville and Nashville railroad, under orders for Lynchburg, Virginia. At Nashville it was joined by a company from the southwest part of Kentucky, headed by Captain, afterward Colonel E. Crossland, and another from Callaway county, led by Captain Brownson. From Lynchburg these companies were ordered to Harper’s Ferry, where they formed another Kentucky Battalion, with Duncan Major."
"On the same day, 23 April, and on the same train, went another Louisville company, commanded by Capatin J. D. Pope, and numbering 114 men, and one from Scott county, mustering 122, and under Captain Desha, son of ex-Governor Desha, of this State. They reached Harper’s Ferry in due time, and were organised as rifle companies, forming the Second Battalion of Kentucky Sharpshooters, under Pope now promoted to major, and were assigned to the brigade of Bartow, who was killed in the first battle of Manasass."
"An independent Confederate company was also raised in Louisville by Capatin L. H. Fitzhugh; and upon its arrival in Virginia, and after the battle just named, the several majors of the Kentucky battalions petitioned the war Department at Richmond for consolidation of their commands into a regiment. The request was granted and the regiment formed accordingly, with all the Louisville companies aforesaid in it, and T. H. Taylor, now chief of police in that city, as colonel, W. P. Johnson, lieutenant colonel and E. crossland, major, all the majors of battalions having mutually agreed to retire from the contest for position as field officers. The former majors returned to the line as captains."
History of the Ohio falls cities and their counties with illustrations and bibliographical sketches, Volume 1, extract; Louisville men in the Southern army, from a statement by Colonel John D Pope, of the Attorney's bureau in the Louisville and Nashville railway offices
"With Bartow's Brigade we made the heavy march from Winchester to reenforce Beauregard at Manassas. The organisation immortalised itself in the battle as Bartow's Brigade; but the 1st Kentucky didn't share the glory, they being dumped by a railroad werck during the passage of the last part of the route."
The Confederate Veteran, Volume XVI: Kentuckians defend their state, p597
"Headquarters Camp Duncan, Lynchburg, Va: At noon today we were ordered from camp to report for immediate march to Richmond. Although weary and worn down from the protracted railroad trip, every man in the command appeared fresh and full of life on duty. Our Captain, Jo Desha, while was hindered from getting upon the train. The tribute paid to him when he arrived was worth a dozen victories. Then came grand order for Harper's Ferry." 10 May, 1861
"Members of the Kentucky Battalion at Harper's Ferry, Capt. Pope's company had become very troublesome to the command, and Col. Duncan refused to permit them to be mustered into his battalion." 16 May, 1861
"We learn that Capt. John D. Pope, of the Bustard Guards, had been promoted to the position of Major of Battalion, and Lieut. Phil Victor is now in command of the company." 21 May, 1861
"Capt. Jack Thompson left Owensboro, Kentucky, on Tuesday with eighty-five men for service in Virginia." 31 May, 1861
"Col. Blanton Duncan yesterday resigned his command of the First Kentucky Battalion. The causes leading to this action are wholly of a private and personal charcater. The companies of Capts. Desha and Pope will unite with other Kentuckians, and thus render the battalion the most effective in the service. Col. Duncan leaves tomorrow for Richmond, and will probably return very soon to Louisville. The Harvey Rifles is the name that is now read of all men from the banner of the company of Capt. James B. Harvey. Duncan has been omitted by a vote of the privates." 29 July, 1861
"Col. Thomas H. Taylor, of Frankfort, Ky., has been appointed Colonel of (Blanton) Duncan's Kentucky Regiment. The regiment is at Manassas, Va. The colonel will be remembered as a bearer of dispatches from Jeff Davis to Washington." 29 August, 1861
Kentucky soldiers and their regiments in the Civil War: Abstracted from the pages of contemporary Kentucky newspapers, Volume 1, by Steven L Wright
"Stationed at Camp Bartow, Virginia, 23 April–30 June, 1861. The company was mustered into the service as an independent company some weeks after date of last muster. It commenced acting woth captain Pope's company as a quasi-battalion without any known order." Company C, Captain J Desha
Supplement to the Official Records: Part II, Record of Events, Volume 23, Serial No.35, edited by Janet B Hewett
"A regiment of troops, from Ky., under Col. Blanton Duncan, now at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in the Confederate Army." 15 May, 1861
History of Kentucky, Volume 1, by Lewis Collins and Richard H Collins
"They are under the command of Col. Blanton Duncan, and the following officers: Adjutant D. J. Symmes; Surgeon, Dr. Alex. Forsythe; and Captains Jo. Desha, of Harrison county; Ed. Crossland, of Hickman county; John D. Pope, of Louisville; M. Lapielle, of Louisville, and Harvey, of Louisville. They are all dressed in the blue Kentucky hunting shirt, and a finer body of men the world has never produced. On Thursday night they left Lynchburg for Harper's Ferry."
The Richmond Daily Dispatch 4 May, 1861: The Kentucky troops
"They number about six hundred, are uniformed in blue woolen hunting shirts and trousers, with slouched hats, and are commanded by Col. Blanton Duncan, a wealthy gentleman of Kentucky, who served in the regiment of that State with distinction during the Mexican war. Col. Duncan raised, equipped and transported his regiment to Virginia entirely at his own expense. The Kentuckians are armed with Minnie rifles. They are specially detailed to guard the strongly fortified Maryland Heights, the key to the whole position."
The Richmond Daily Dispatch 17 May, 1861: The Kentucky troops
"On 25 April, 1861, Captain Joe Desha and one hundred men from Harrison County, along with three companies from Louisville under Captains John Pope, J. B. Harvey and Michael Lapielle, left the state to join the Confederate Army. They were joined at Nashville by two companies from Southwest Kentucky."
Louisville and the Civil War: A history and guide, by Bryan S Bush
"Early in the spring of 1861, he raised a large company for the Confederate infantry, and went out under the temporary command of Colonel Blanton Duncan, but, shortly after the operations at Harpers Ferry, it was mustered into service as an independent company. In July, 1861, he joined the Kentucky Battalion under Lieutenant-Colonel Claiborne. This became, in a few weeks, the First Regiment Kentucky Volunteers, in which his company was incorporated, under the title of C."
History of the First Kentucky brigade, by Edwin Porter Thompson
"We received orders to proceed to Richmond, where we landed on June 20, 1861. About the 10th day of July we were ordered to Manassas. On the way to Manassas we were in a railroad wreck. The Kentucky troops lost thity two men killed and wounded, but we escaped without the loss of a man."
Reminiscences of the boys in grey, 1861–65: Private J. P. O'Rear, 1st Texas Infantry, Company D
"It arrived after a much faster run than the one to Manassas – this time it carried no load – and was ready for Bartow's Second Brigade men to start boarding the cars by sundown. He got the 7th amd 8th Georgia Regiments aboard but did not have room to mount the rest of the brigade, which left the 9th Georgia and the 1st Kentucky stranded for the time being."
"Apparently it departed shortly before or after Smith's engine, and carried the First Kentucky, the remainder of the Eleventh Mississippi, and probably the First Tennessee. They started out all right, but unexpectedly the engine suffered a collision – with what no one specified – and the cars could go no farther."
Battle at Bull Run: A history of the first major campaign of the Civil War by W C Davis
"I was appointed a Capt of Staff by Davis & ordered from Richmond to Genl Johnston's Army at Winchester, and there was placed as Ass Adj Genl with Col Elzeys Brigade – was assigned as field officer to Kentucky Battalion 3 days after, & [marched] as major in that command, to relieve Genl Beauregard – was detained by Genl Johnston at Piedmont and arrived here yesterday, the day after the battle the results of which are most glorious to us." 24 July, 1861, Manassas Junction
Thomas Claiborne papers, June–August 1861, supplied by Samanatha Crisp, Louis Round Wilson Special Collections Library, The University of North Carolina
Supplement to the Official Records: Part II, Record of Events, Volume 23, Serial No.35: Record of events for First Regiment, Kentucky Infantry (Confederate), April 1861–May 1862, edited by James B Hewett
Report of the adjutant general of the state of Kentucky: Confederate Kentucky volunteers, war 1861–65, Volume 1, printed by the authority of the legislature of kentucky
Confederate Military History: A library of Confederate States history, written by distinguished men of the South, Volume IX, edited by Clement A Evans
Captains J B Harvey's and M Lapielle were organised under the direction of Colonel H B Duncan, at Louisville, Kentucky, and Captains J Desha's and J D Pope's were organised at Louisville, Kentucky, on 23 April, 1861. The four companies, under the temporary command of Colonel H B Duncan, proceeded by railroad to Nashville, Tennessee, on 24 April, 1861, and were joined Captains E Crossland's and C C Bowman companies, organised at Nashville, Tennessee, and Murray, Kentucky, respectively on 23 April, 1861. The six companies were ordered to Lynchburg, Virginia, and proceeded to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, on 2 May, 1861. Captain J D Pope's company was delayed at Lynchburg, Virginia, and arrived at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, on 4 May, 1861, and on the company's arrival became troublesome. Colonel H B Duncan refused to permit the company to be mustered in the 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry and Captains J D Pope's and J Desha's companies were organised as the 2nd Kentucky Battalion Sharpshooters, under the command of Acting Major J D Pope, with First Lieutenant P M Victor commanding the Bustard Guards (See the 2nd Kentucky Battalion Sharpshooters). Lieutenant Colonel H B Duncan assumed command of the 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry and Major T Claiborne, Confederate States Army, was assigned as major on 16 July, 1861. Acting Major J D Pope resigned on 17 July, 1861, and the 2nd Kentucky Battalion Sharpshooters was assigned to the command of Major T Claiborne, commanding the the 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry.
At 1 AM on 18 July, 1861, the War Department at Richmond, Virginia, ordered General J E Johnston to proceed with the Army of the Shenandoah to Manassas Junction and join the Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General P G T Beauregard.
The 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry and the 2nd Kentucky Battalion Sharpshooters, under the command of Major T Claiborne, arrived at Piedmont Station, Virginia, on 19 July, 1861. The Kentucky troops proceeded by railroad to Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, in the morning on 22 July, 1861, and were delayed by a railroad collision that killed and wounded thirty-two men. The Kentucky troops arrived at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, at 12 AM on 22 July, 1861, and encamped near the Lewis House, Portici, a mile southeast of Henry Hill, Virginia. Shortly afterwards Captain J Desha's company and First Lieutenant W H Rowan's company were consolidated with the 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry and proceeded to Sudley Mill, Virginia. The Kentucky Battalion Infantry was ordered to Camp Bartow, two and half miles east of Manassas Junction, on 31 July, 1861.
At the first battle of Manassas Lieutenant Colonel H B Duncan volunteered for duty on the staff of General J E Johnston and resigned his commission on 28 July, 1861. H B Duncan returned to Louisville, Kentucky, on 20 August, 1861, and after the resignation of Lieutenant Colonel H B Duncan the Duncan Rifles, under the command of Captain J B Harvey, which was organised under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel H B Duncan, voted to change the company name to the Harvey Rifles. Captains W H Rowan's and J Desha's companies were officially assigned to the 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel T Claiborne.
On 29 July, 1861, Lieutenant Colonel T Claiborne declined the position of colonel of the 1st Kentucky Infantry and on 7 August, 1861, General J E Johnston organised the Kentucky companies under his command into a regiment, with Lieutenant Colonel T H Taylor, Confederate States Army, as colonel. On 8 August, 1861, Lieutenant Colonel T H Taylor, stationed at Richmond, Virginia, was ordered to Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction. The 3rd Kentucky Battalion Infantry, under the command of Major B M Anderson, was ordered to proceed to Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, on 11 August, 1861, and was delayed by a railroad accident (See the 3rd Kentucky Battalion Infantry). The battalion, under the command of Major B M Anderson, arrived at Camp Bartow, near Manasas Junction, on 15 August, 1861, and the 1st Kentucky Infantry was organised, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel T H Taylor and Major B M Anderson, with the consolidation of the 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry and the 3rd Kentucky Battalion Infantry. On 14 October, 1861, Lieutenant Colonel T H Taylor was commissioned colonel, Major W P Johnston, of the 3rd Kentucky Infantry, was commissioned lieutenant colonel, Captain E Crossland was commissioned major, and Major B M Anderson was transferred to the 3rd Kentucky Infantry (See the 1st Kentucky Infantry).
Captain T Claiborne and First Lieutenant R C Hill, Confederate States Army, were ordered to Winchester, Virginia, to report for duty to General J E Johnston by Special Order No.93, 10 July, 1861. On 13 July, 1861, Captain T Claiborne was assigned to the staff of Colonel A Elzey, commanding the Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, as assistant adjutant general.
Captain F S Bartow was commissioned colonel, 8th Georgia Infantry, on 21 June, 1861, and assigned to command the Second Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah.
On 25 July 1861, the Army of the Shenandoah was reorganised and the 1st Kentucky Battalion Infantry was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General S A M Jones.
Orders of Battle
The above painting, 'Never give up the field', is by Don Troiani, modern America's finest historial artist.