The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

Second Brigade, Third Division

Captain W H Withington, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company B

Captain W H Withington, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company B

First Michigan Infantry

Mustered in United States service for three months 1 May, 1861. Arrived at Washington, D. C., 16 May, 1861. Reorganised for three years on 16 September, 1861

COLONEL O B WILLCOX
O B Willcox was appointed colonel, 1st Michigan Infantry, on 24 April, 1861, and was assigned to command the Second Brigade, Third Division, on 2 July, 1861.

LIEUTENANT COLONEL L L COMSTOCK
L L Comstock was appointed lieutenant colonel, 1st Michigan Infantry, on 24 April, 1861, and was resigned on 19 June, 1861. Captain C M Lure, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company A, was appointed acting lieutenant colonel prior to the first battle of Bull Run.

MAJOR A F BIDWELL
A F Bidwell was appointed major, 1st Michigan Infantry, on 24 April, 1861, and assigned to command the 1st Michigan Infantry on 2 July, 1861. Captain W H Withington, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company B, was assigned as acting major prior to the first battle of Bull Run.

Company A Detroit Light Guards: CAPT. C M LUre
The company was accepted in state service at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 18 April, 1861, and arrived at Fort Wayne, on the Detroit River, three miles southwest of Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the morning on 26 April, 1861. Captain C M Lure, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company A, was appointed acting lieutenant colonel, 1st Michigan Infantry, and First Lieutenant J D Fairbanks, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company A, was assigned to command the company during the first battle of Bull Run on 21 July, 1861.
Company B Jackson Greys or Light Guards: CAPT. W H WITHINGTON
The company was accepted in state service at Jackson, Jackson County, Michigan, on 29 April, 1861, and arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the evening the same day. Captain W H Withington, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company B, was appointment acting major, 1st Michigan Infantry, and First Lieutenant E B Griffith, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company B, was assigned to command the company during the first battle of Bull Run on 21 July, 1861.
Company C Coldwater Cadets: CAPT. E BUTTERWORTH
The company was accepted in state service at Coldwater, Branch County, Michigan, on 24 April, 1861, and arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the evening on 29 April, 1861.
Company D Manchester Union Guards: CAPT. I L CLARKSON
The company was accepted in state service at Manchester, Washtenaw County, Michigan, on 29 April, 1861, arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, at 2 PM the same day.
Company E Steuben Guards: CAPT. W F ROTH
The company was accepted in state service at Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, Michigan, on 24 April, 1861, and arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, at 10 AM on 29 April, 1861.
Company F Detroit Hussars: CAPT. H S ROBERTS
The company was accepted in state service at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 20 April, 1861, and arrived at Fort Wayne, on the Detroit River, three miles southwest of Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the morning on 26 April, 1861.
Company G Burr Oak Guards: CAPT. I C ABBOTT
The company was accepted in state service at Burr Oak, St Joseph County, Michigan, on 24 April, 1861, , and arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 29 April, 1861.
Company H Ypsilanti Light Guards: CAPT. F W WHITTLESEY
The company was accepted in state service at Ypsilanti, Washtenaw County, Michigan, on 20 April, 1861, and arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, at 10 AM on 29 April, 1861.
Company I Marshall Light Guards: CAPT. D HUBBARD
The company was accepted in state service at Marshall, Calhoun County, Michigan, on 22 April, 1861, and arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the morning on 29 April, 1861.
Company K Adrian or Hardee Cadets: CAPT. W H GRAVES
The company was accepted in state service at Adrian, Lenawee County, Michigan, on 18 April, 1861, and arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, at 2 PM on 29 April, 1861.
Band: band Ldr. J D Elderkin

Sources

"The Marshall Light Guards arrived here yesterday morning on the early train, and marched immediately to Fort Wayne. At 10 o'clock the Steuben Guards, from Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti Light Guards arrived, and went directly to Fort Wayne. The Adrian Cadets, numbering upwards of ninety men, arrived at two o'clock yesterday by the Michigan Southern Railroad. The Manchester Union Guards, Captain I. L. Clarkson, arrived on the same train. The Jackson Grays came in on the evening train. The Burr Oak Guards came in as far the Junction and marched from there to the Fort. This completes the companies belonging to the First Regiment, with the exception of the Coldwater Artillery which will arrive this morning and quarter on the Fair Ground and no accommodations for horses have been provided at the Fort."

The Free Press (Detroit), 30 April, 1861 - Arrival of volunteers

"The Coldwater Cadets, Capt. E. Butterworth, arrived late on Monday evening, which completes the First Regiment, stationed at Fort Wayne."

The Free Press (Detroit), 1 May, 1861 - Arrival of more troops

"The First Michigan Regiment arrived here this evening, composed of 780 men, and tonight they participated in a dress parade, making a handsome appearence and commanding general commendation from the large number of spectators."

The Philadelphia Press, 16 May, 1861 - Arrival of a Michigan Regiment at Harrisburg

"The Michigan First Rifle Regiment, Colonel Wilcox, numbering 780 men, arrived last evening about ten o'clock, and marched to Woodward's building, near the corner of Eleventh street and Pennsylvania avenue. They left Michigan on Monday last, and stopped at camp Slifer on Wednesday night. The men are neatly uniformed, with blue jackets and pants, and blue caps."

The National Republican, 17 May, 1861 - Arrival of the First Michigan Regiment and other soldiers

"The garrison at Alexandria now consists as follows: Michigan First, Col. Willcox, 780 men; New York Fire Zouaves, Lieut. Colonel Farnham, 1,157 men; Massachusetts Fifth, Col. Lawrence, 880 men; Pennsylvania Fifth, Col. McDowell, 1,014 men; Captain Rickett's Light Battery, (regulars) six pieces, 100 men; company E, second cavalry, Lieut. Sweet commanding, 76 men - total 3,901."

The Evening Star, 4 June, 1861 - Troops stationed at Alexandria, Virginia

"The fortification is under command of Col. Wilcox, of the First, and garrisoned by the 1st Michigan and a company of regular artillery. The Michigan regiment do not remain in the fort except in case of an alarm."

The Lansing State Republican (Michigan), 10 July, 1861 - Camp Georgetown Heights, D. C., 27 June, 1861

"The First Michigan Regiment, Col. Wilcox, and the New York Fire Zouaves have marched forward from Shuter's Hill to Cloud's Mill, in Fairfax county."

The National Republican, 13 July, 1861 - The First Michigan and New York Fire Zouaves have advanced towards Fairfax Courthouse

Record of service of Michigan volunteers in the civil war, 1861–1865, Volume 1, by George H Turner

The First Michigan Infantry three months and three years: Brief history of the regiment from it's organisation in May, 1861, until its muster out in July, 1865, together with personal experiences of writer, by C W Owen

Michigan in the war, compiled by J Robertson, Adjutant General

Forgotten valor: The memoirs, journals, & Civil War letters of Orlando B Willcox, by Orlando B Willcox

The Union Army: A history of military affairs in the loyal states 1861-65, records of the regiments in the Union Army, cyclopedia of battles, memoirs of commanders and soldiers, Volume 3, New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan

Notes

The 1st Michigan Infantry was accepted in state service on 24 April, 1861, and was stationed at Fort Wayne, on the Detroit River, three miles southwest of Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 29 April, 1861.

Note: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to rendezvous at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, under the call for 75,000 troops to serve three months by President A Lincoln on 15 April, 1861.

Paragraph I, Headquarters, First Regiment Michigan Infantry, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, 23 April, 1861: Lieutenant Colonel L L Comstock and Major A F Bidwell, 1st Michigan Infantry, were ordered to Fort Wayne, on the Detroit River, three miles southwest of Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, by Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Regiment Michigan Infantry, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 23 April, 1861.

Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Regiment Michigan Infantry, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, 23 April, 1861: The Detroit Light Guards, the Jackson Light Guards, the Coldwater Cadets, the Manchester Union Guards, the Steuben Guards, the Detroit Hussars, the Burr oak Guards, the Ypsilanti Light Guards, the Marshall Light Guards, and the Hardee cadets were assigned to the 1st Michigan Infantry by Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Regiment Michigan Infantry, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 23 April, 1861.

Paragraph III, Headquarters, First Regiment Michigan Infantry, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, 23 April, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry, Companies A and F, were ordered to Fort Wayne, on the Detroit River, three miles southwest of Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, by Paragraph III, Headquarters, First Regiment Michigan Infantry, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, at 10 AM on 26 April, 1861, dated 23 April, 1861, and Companies B, C, D, E, G, H, I, and K on 29 April, 1861, dated 23 April, 1861.

Fort Wayne, on the Detroit River, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, Companies A & F, 26 April, 1861: The Detroit Light Guards and Detroit Hussars arrived at Fort Wayne, on the Detroit River, three miles southwest of Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the morning on 26 April, 1861.

Marshall, Calhoun County, to Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, Company I, 29 April, 1861: The Marshall Light Guards arrived by the Michigan Central Railroad at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the morning on 29 April, 1861.

Ann Arbor & Ypsilanti, Washtenaw County, to Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, Companies E & H, 29 April, 1861: The Steuben Guards and the Ypsilanti Light Guards arrived by the Michigan Central Railroad at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, at 10 AM on 29 April, 1861.

Adrian, Lenawee County, & Manchester, Washtenaw County, to Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, Companies D & K, 29 April, 1861: The Adrian or Hardee Cadets and the Manchester Union Guards arrived by the Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Railroad at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, at 2 PM on 29 April, 1861.

Jackson, Jackson County, to Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, Company B, 29 April, 1861: The Jackson Greys or Light Guards arrived by the Michigan Central Railroad at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the evening on 29 April, 1861.

Coldwater, Branch County, to Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, Company C, 30 April, 1861: The Coldwater Cadets arrived by the Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Railroad at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, in the evening on 29 April, 1861.

Mustered in three months, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, 1 May, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was mustered in United States service for three months at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, by Lieutenant Colonel E Backus, 3rd United States Infantry, on 1 May, 1861.

Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, to Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Companies B, E, G, H, & K, 13-14 May, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry, Companies B, E, G, H, and K, were ordered to proceed by the steamer Illinois across Lake Erie to Washington, D. C., at 7 PM on 13 May, 1861, and arrived at Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, at 5.45 AM on 14 May, 1861.

Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, to Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Companies A, C, D, F, & I, 13-14 May, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry, Companies A, C, D, F, and I, were ordered to proceed by the steamer May Queen across Lake Erie to Washington, D. C., at 8 PM on 13 May, 1861, and arrived at Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, at 6.30 AM on 14 May, 1861.

Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to Washington, D. C., 14-16 May, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad to Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, at 10.30 AM on 14 May, 1861, and arrived by the Pennsylvania Railroad at Camp Curtin, the Dauphin County Agricultural Society, near Harrisburg, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, in the evening on 15 May, 1861. The regiment was ordered to proceed by the Northern Central Railroad to Baltimore City, Maryland, at 7 AM on 16 May, 1861, and was accompanied by the Lochiel Greys and the Carbondale City Guards (See the 25th Pennsylvania Infantry). The 1st Michigan Infantry arrived at Baltimore City, Maryalnd, at 4.30 PM the same day and was ordered to proceed by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to Washington, D. C., at 7 PM on 16 May, 1861. The regiment arrived by the Washington Branch, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, at Washington, D. C., via Annaplois Junction, Howard County, Maryland, at 11 PM the same day.

Woodward's building, on North D Street, near the corner of Eleventh Street & Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C., 16 May, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was stationed at Woodward's building, on North D Street, near the corner of Eleventh Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C., on 16 May, 1861.

Occupation of Arlington Heights, Alexandria County, & Alexandria, Virginia, 24 May, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered across the Potomac River at the Long Bridge, Washington, D. C., at 2 AM on 24 May, 1861, and was accompanied by Captain S W Owen, President's Mounted Guard. The regiment arrived by the Alexandria & Washington Turnpike at Alexandria, Virginia, at 6 AM the same day and captured thirty-six men of the Border Guards or Fairfax Cavalry, under the command of Captain M D Ball, at Price, Birch & Co Slave Pen, on Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia, on 24 May, 1861 (See the Occupation of Arlington Heights and Alexandria).

Note: The 1st Michigan Infantry was stationed at Camp Willcox, near Alexandria, Virginia, on 24 May, 1861.

Special Orders No.1, Headquarters, Alexandria, Virginia, 26 May, 1861: Captain F W Whittlesey, 1st Michigan Infantry, Company H, was appointed Provost Marshall, at Alexandria, Virginia, and such parts of the vicinity as may come within the range of outposts and the 1st Michigan Infantry, Company H, was assigned as City Police Guard, Headquarters, Marshall House Hotel, on the corner of King and Pitt Streets, Alexandria, Virginia, by Special Orders No.1, Headquarters, Alexandria, Virginia, on 26 May, 1861.

Special Orders No.2, Headquarters, Alexandria, Virginia, 26 May, 1861: Colonel O B Willcox, 1st Michigan Infantry, assumed command of the troops in and about Alexandria, Virginia, by Special Orders No.2, Headquarters, Alexandria, Virginia, on 26 May, 1861, dated 24 May, 1861.

Note: Colonel O B Willcox, 1st Michigan Infantry, was stationed at O'Neils Railroad Hotel, near the Orange & Alexandria Railroad Depot, on King Street, Alexandria, Virginia, on 25 May, 1861, and the 1st Michigan Infantry and 11th New York Infantry were stationed on Shuter's Hill, half a mile southwest of Alexandria, Virginia, on 28 May, 1861 (See the 11th New York Infantry).

General Orders No.1, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Alexandria, Virginia, 28 May, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry, the 5th Massachusetts Infantry, the 11th New York Infantry, and other troops or detachments at Alexandria, Virginia, were assigned to Colonel C P Stone, 14th United States Infantry, by General Orders No.1, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Alexandria, Virginia, on 28 May, 1861.

Note: The 11th New York Infantry, Company G, under the command of Captain M A Tagan, and the 1st Michigan Infantry, Company E, under the command of Captain W F Roth, were engaged in a skirmish at Cloud's Mill, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 11 PM on 31 May, 1861, and a detachment of the 1st Michigan Infantry, Company K, under the command of First Lieutenant J W Homer, was stationed near Hunting Creek Bridge, on Hunting Creek, near Alexandria, Virginia, on 2 June, 1861.

Alexandria to Shuter's Hill, near Alexandria, Virginia, 4 June, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to Shuter's Hill, near Alexandria, Virginia, on 4 June, 1861.

Troops stationed at Alexandria, Virginia, 4 June, 1861: 1st Michigan Infantry, Colonel O B Willcox; 11th New York Infantry, Lieutenant Colonel N Farnham (See the 11th New York Infantry); 5th Massachusetts Infantry, Colonel S C Lawrence (See the 5th Massachusetts Infantry); 5th Pennsylvania Infantry, Colonel R P McDowell (See the 5th Pennsylvania Infantry); 1st United States Artillery, Light Company I, First Lieutenant D Ramsay (See the 1st United States Artillery, Light Company I); 2nd United States Cavalry, Company E, First Lieutenant J J Sweet, 2nd United States Cavalry, Company K (See the United States Battalion Cavalry)

Special Orders No.17, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia, 1 July, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry and the 11th New York Infantry were assigned to Colonel O B Willcox, 1st Michigan Infantry, by Special Orders No.17, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia, on 1 July, 1861.

General Orders No.13, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia, 8 July, 1861: The 11th New York Infantry was assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, McDowell's Army, under the command of Colonel O B Willcox, 1st Michigan Infantry, by General Orders No.13, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia, on 8 July, 1861.

Cameron's Run, near Clouds Mills, Fairfax County, Virginia, Company I, 9 July, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry, Company I, and the 11th New York Infantry, Company A, were ordered to proceed by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad to Cameron's Run, near Clouds Mills, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the morning on 9 July, 1861.

Shuter's Hill, near Alexandria, to Cloud's Mill & Strawberry Hill, one mile below Cloud's Mill, Fairfax County, Virginia, 12 July, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to Clouds Mills, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 12 July, 1861, and Colonel O B Willcox, 1st Michigan Infantry, set up the headquarters of the Second Brigade, Third Division, McDowell's Army, at Strawberry Hill, one mile below Cloud's Mill, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 12 July, 1861.

Advance to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 16-18 July, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Old Fairfax Road to Pohick Run at 10 AM on 16 July, 1861, and proceeded across Accotink Creek in the afternoon the same day. The regiment arrived near Pohick Church, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 7 PM on 16 July, 1861, and was ordered across Pohick Run at 5.30 AM the on 17 July, 1861. The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Pohick Road to Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day and arrived via Sangster's or Elzey's Crossroads, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 1 PM on 17 July, 1861. The regiment was ordered to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day but the order was countermanded and arrived near Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the evening on 17 July, 1861. The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to Little Rocky Run, east of Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 4 PM on 18 July, 1861, and arrived by the Old Braddock Road at 8.30 PM the same day.

Little Rocky Run, east of Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, to Sudley Ford, on the Bull Run River, 21 July, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to Sudley Ford, on the Bull Run River, at 2.30 AM on 21 July, 1861, and arrived via Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 12.30 PM the same day.

Retreat to Washington, D. C., 21-22 July, 1861: After the first battle of Bull Run the 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the afternoon on 21 July, 1861, and arrived at Washington, D. C., via Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the evening on 22 July, 1861.

Washington to Meridian Hill, D. C., 26 July, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry was ordered to Merdian Hill, D. C., on 26 July, 1861, and was ordered to Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 29 July, 1861.

Mustered out, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, 7 August, 1861: The 1st Michigan Infantry arrived at Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, on 2 August, 1861, and was mustered out on 7 August, 1861.

Colonel O B Willcox, 1st Michigan Infantry, Second Brigade, Third Division, McDowell's Army: O B Willcox organised the 1st Michigan Infantry at Fort Wayne, Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, and was appointed colonel in May 1861. Colonel B Willcox, 1st Michigan Infantry, was appointed brigadier general dated 21 July, 1861.

Colonel S P Heintzelman, Third Division, McDowell's Army: Major S P Heintzelman, 1st United States Infantry, was ordered to Washington, D. C., by General Orders No.12, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D. C., on 27 April, 1861, and proceeded by the New Jersey Railroad in the morning on 3 May, 1861. He arrived by the Washington Branch, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, in the morning on 4 May, 1861, and was appointed acting inspector general, Department of Washington, by Special Orders No.20, Headquarters, Department of Washington, Washington, D. C., on 8 May, 1861. Acting Inspector General & Major S P Heintzelman was assigned to command the the 8th New York State Militia Infantry, the 12th New York State Militia Infantry, and the 25th New York State Militia Infantry by General Orders No.1, Paragraph III, Headquarters, Department of Notheastern Virginia, Alexandria, Virginia, on 28 May, 1861, and was appointed colonel, 17th United States Infantry, by General Orders No.33, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D. C., on 18 June, 1861, dated 14 May, 1861. Colonel S P Heintzelman, 17th United States Infantry, was appointed brigadier general, United States Volunteers, by General Orders No.62, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D. C., on 20 August, 1861, dated 17 May, 1861.

Note: The 1st United States Infantry, Company A, was stationed at Camp Verde, on the San Antonio & El Paso Road, Kerr County, Texas, under the command of Major S P Heintzelman, 1st United States Infantry, on 1 January, 1861.

Reports

OFFICIAL REPORT NO.48: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp411-413
Major A F Bidwell, First Michigan Infantry, dated washington, D. C., 25 July, 1861

OFFICIAL REPORT NO.46: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, p408-410
Colonel O B Willcox, First Michigan Infantry, Second Brigade, Third Division, McDowell's Army, dated Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, 3 September, 1862

OFFICIAL REPORT NO.43: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, p402-404
Colonel S P Heintzleman, Seventeenth United States Infantry, Third Division, McDowell's Army, dated Washington, D. C., 31 July, 1861