The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

Fourth Brigade, First Division

Colonel R Cowdin, 1st Massachusetts Infantry

Colonel R Cowdin, 1st Massachusetts Infantry

First Massachusetts Infantry

Mustered in United States service for three years 23, 24, 25, and 27 May, 1861. Arrived at Washington, D. C., 17 June, 1861

COLONEL R COWDIN
Colonel R Cowdin, 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, was appointed colonel, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, on 1 May, 1861, dated 22 May, 1861, and brigadier general, United States Volunteers, on 1 October, 1862.

LIEUTENANT COLONEL G D WELLS
Captain G D Wells, 2nd Massachusetts Battalion (Volunteer) Militia, Company D, was appointed lieutenant colonel, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, on 1 May, 1861, dated 22 May, 1861, and colonel, 34th Massachusetts Infantry, on 11 July, 1862.

MAJOR C P CHANDLER
Captain C P Chandler, 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Company A, was appointed major, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, on 22 May, 1861.

Company A 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Company H: CAPT. E A WILD(e)
The company was accepted in state service at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, under the command of Captain C P Chandler, on 27 April, 1861, and Captain C P Chandler, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company A, was appointed major, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, and Captain W A Wilde, captain, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company A, on 22 May, 1861.
Company B Union Guards, 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Company B: CAPT. E PEARL
The company was accepted in state service at East Boston District, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 27 April, 1861, and twenty men, under the command of First Lieutenant G H Johnston and Sergeant G Forrest, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Companies E and G, respectively, were assigned to Brethschneider's Battalion Light Infantry, under the command of Captian G R Brethschneider, 2nd Michigan Infantry, Company E, on 14 July, 1861 (See Brethschneider's Battalion Infantry). Captain E Pearl, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company B, was discharged on 3 August, 1861, and resigned on 18 August, 1861, and First Lieutenant G H Smith, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company B, was appointed captain, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company B, on 26 August 1861.
Company C (1st) Greenough Guards: CAPT. J H Barnes
The company was accepted in state service at East Boston District, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 25 April, 1861, and was stationed at Pemberton Square, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in the afternoon on 3 May, 1861. The company was ordered to proceed by the steamer Cambridge to Fort Monroe, Old Comfort Point, Hampton, Virginia, in the afternoon on 18 May, 1861, and was temporarily assigned to the 4th Massachusetts Infantry, Company K, at Fort Monroe, Old Comfort Point, Hampton, Virginia, between 18 May and 15 July, 1861, and to the 29th Massachusetts Infantry, Company K, on 13 December, 1861.
Company C (2nd) North End True Blues: CAPT. G WALKER
The company was accepted in state service at North End and East Boston Districts, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in the afternoon on 24 April, 1861, and was stationed at Pemberton Square, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in the afternoon on 3 May, 1861.
Company D Roxbury City Guards, 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Company D: CAPT. E W STONE Jr.
The company was accepted in state service at Roxbury District, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, under the command of Captain J J Dyer, on 27 April, 1861, and Fisrt Lieutenant E W Stone, Jr., 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company D, was appointed captain, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company D, on 29 April, 1861.
Company E Pulaski Guards, 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Company E: CAPT. C B BALDWIN
The company was accepted in state service at South Boston District, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 27 April, 1861.
Company F National Guards, 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Company F: CAPT. A W ADAMS
The company was accepted in state service at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 27 April, 1861, and Captain A W Adams, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company F, was discharged on 3 August, 1861, and resigned on 18 August, 1861.
Company G Independent Boston Fusiliers: CAPT. H A SNOW
The company was accepted in state service at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 27 April, 1861, and twenty men, under the command of First Lieutenant G H Johnston, Company E, and Sergeant G Forrest, Company G, were assigned to Brethschneider's Battalion Light Infantry, under the command of Captian G R Brethschneider's, on 14 July, 1861 (See Brethschneider's Battalion Infantry). Captain H A Snow, 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Company G, was discharged on 3 August, 1861, and resigned on 18 August, 1861.
Company H Chelsea Volunteers or Light Infantry: CAPT. S CARRUTH
The company was accepted in state service at Chelsea, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 27 April, 1861, and was stationed at Pemberton Square, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in the afternoon on 3 May, 1861.
Company I Boston Volunteers or Schouler Guards: CAPT. C E RAND
The company was accepted in state service at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 19 April, 1861, and arrived at Faneuil Hall, on Market Street, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 21 May, 1861.
Company K Chadwick Light Infantry: CAPT. A G CHAMBERLAIN
The company was accepted in state service at Roxbury District, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 19 April, 1861.
Band: Band LDR. J H Proctor

Sources

"The Firtst Regiment of Infantry, under Col. Cowdin, appeared yesterday afternoon and marched through our principal streets. They were joined by the North End True Blues, East Boston Volunteers, Chelsea Volunteers, and Captain Rand's company, and numbered 766 men."

The Boston Daily Advertiser, 4 May, 1861 - Parade of the First Infantry

"This regiment, one of the most complete, in every respect of any which has yet arrived here, reached the city about six o'clock last evening by the carsThe Massachusetts first numbers 1,046 men, exclusive of servants. The uniform is a grey jacket, gray overcoat, drab pantaloons, and grey fatigue caps, trimmed with red cord."

The National Republican, 18 June, 1861 - More troops: The arrival of the First Massachusetts Regiment

"The gray-clad men of the First Massachusetts were led by Lieutenant-Colonel George D Wells in their charge down the wooded incline on the Union left toward the run."

The glories of war: Small battles and early heroes of 1861, by Charles P Poland, Jr.

First Regiment of Infantry Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, Colonel Robert Cowdin, commanding, in service of the United States, in answer to the President's first call for troops to suppress the rebellion, 15 April, 1861,
compiled from original papers in the Adjutant General and Auditor's offices of the Commonwealth

History of the First Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, from the 25th of May, 1861, to the 25th of May, 1864, by Warren H Cudworth

The Union Army: A history of military affairs in the loyal states 1861-65, records of the regiments in the Union Army, cyclopedia of battles, memoirs of commanders and soldiers, Volume 1, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and Delaware

Massachusetts Register, 1862, containing a record of the Government and Institutions of the State, together with a very complete account of the Massachusetts Volunteers, Serial No.94, by Adams, Sampson & Co.

Notes

The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was accepted in state service and ordered to rendezvous at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, by Special Order No.100, Commomwealth of Massachusetts, Headquarters, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 27 April, 1861.

Note: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to rendezvous at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, under the call for 42,034 troops to serve three years by President A Lincoln on 3 May, 1861, and was mustered in state service for three years at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 22 May, 1861.

Orders No.14, Headquarters, First Regiment of Infantry, First Brigade, First Division, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, 27 April, 1861: The captains of the companies of the 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, were ordered to rendezvous at Hancock House, 30 Beacon Street, on Beacon Hill, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, by Orders No.14, Headquarters, First Regiment of Infantry, First Brigade, First Division, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, at 9 AM on 28 April, 1861, dated 27 April, 1861.

Note: Special Orders No.100, Commomwealth of Massachusetts, Headquarters, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, was revoked by Special Orders No.183, Commomwealth of Massachusetts, Headquarters, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, on 7 May, 1861.

Organisation of 1st Massachusetts Infantry, 29 April, 1861: Colonel R Cowdin, Lieutenant Colonel I Burrett, Major T L D Perkins; Company A, Captain C P Chandler; Company B, Union Guards, Captain E Pearl; Company C, Greenough Guards, Captain J H Barnes; Company D, Roxbury City Guards, Captain J J Dyer; Company E, Pulaski Guards, Captain C B Baldwin; Company F, National Guards, Captain A W Adams; Company G, Independent Boston Fusiliers, Captain H A Snow; Company H, Chelsea Volunteers or Light Infantry, Captain S Carruth; Company I, Boston Volunteers, Captain C E Rand; Company K, Chadwick Light Infantry, Captain A G Chamberlain; Company L, North End True Blues, Captain G Walker

Note: The 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Companies A, B, D, E, and F; the North End True Blues, Greenough Guards, and Chelsea Volunteers or Light Infantry were stationed at Pemberton Square, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in the afternoon on 3 May, 1861, and the 1st Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, Company F; the Chadwick Light Infantry and the Boston Volunteers or Schouler Guards at Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, at 1 PM on 16 May, 1861,

Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, to Fort Monroe, Old Comfort Point, Hampton, Virginia, Company C (1st), 18 May, 1861: The Greenough Guards was ordered to proceed by the steamer Cambridge to Fort Monroe, Old Comfort Point, Hampton, Virginia, in the afternoon on 18 May, 1861.

Steamer Cambridge: 3rd Massachusetts Infantry, Company C (79), Captain L Leach; Company D (78), Captain C Chipman; Company E (77), Captain S H Doten; 4th Massachusetts Infantry, Company A (45), Sergeant J M Drake; Company D (22), Sergeant E Cottle; Company F (12), Sergeant S W Bryant; Company H (22), Sergeant W H Jacobs; Company I (37), Sergeant L S Bent; Greenough Guards (75), Captain J T Barnes

Faneuil Hall, on Market Street, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, Companies C (2nd), I, & K, 26 May, 1861: The North End True Blues, the Schouler Guards, and the Chadwick Light Infantry were stationed at Faneuil Hall, on Market Street, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, under the command of Major T L D Perkins, on 26 May, 1861.

Mustered in three years, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 23, 24, 25, & 27 May, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Companies A, B, G, and H, were mustered in United States service for three years at Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, by First Lieutenant T J C Amory, 7th United States Infantry, Company D, on 23 May, 1861; Companies D, F, K, and I on 24 May, 1861; Company E on 25 May, 1861; and Company C (2nd) at 10 AM on 27 May, 1861.

Boston, Suffolk County, to Fresh Pond, near Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 1 June, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to Fresh Pond, near Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, on 1 June, 1861, and arrived at Camp Ellsworth, Fresh Pond, near Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, the same day.

Boston, Suffolk County, to North Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 13 June, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to North Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the evening on 13 June, 1861, and arrived at Camp Cameron, near North Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, the same day.

North Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, to Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey, 15-16 June, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to the Boston & Providence Railroad Depot at 4.30 AM on 15 June, 1861, and proceeded by the Boston & Providence Railroad to Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey, in the morning the same day. The regiment arrived by the New Haven, New London & Stonington Railroad at Groton, on Thames River, New London County, Connecticut, at 3 AM on 16 June, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the steamer Commonwealth to Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey, the at 5 AM same day. The 1st Massachusetts Infantry arrived on the North or Hudson River at Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey, at 2 PM on 16 June, 1861.

Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey, to Washington, D. C., 16-17 June, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to proceed by the New Jersey Railroad to Washington, D. C., at 7 PM on 16 June, 1861, and arrived by the Camden & Amboy Railroad at Camden, Camden County, in the morning the same day. The regiment arrived by ferry on the Delaware River at Walnut Street Wharf, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at 4 AM on 17 June, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad to Baltimore City, Maryland, at 7 AM the same day. The 1st Massachusetts Infantry arrived at President Street Station, on President Street, Baltimore City, Maryland, at 1 PM on 17 June, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to Washington, D. C., at 3 PM the same day. The regiment arrived by the Washington Branch, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, at Washington, D. C., via Annapolis Junction, Howard County, Maryland, at 6 PM on 17 June, 1861.

Note: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry arrived at Relay House, on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Howard County, Maryland, at 4 PM on 17 June, 1861.

Woodward's building, on Pennsylvania Avenue, & Sixth Street, Washington, D. C., 17 June, 1861: Eight companies of the 1st Massachusetts Infantry were stationed at Woodward's building, on Pennsylvania Avenue, and two companies at Sixth Street, Washington, D. C., on 17 June, 1861.

Woodward's building, on Pennsylvania Avenue, & Sixth Street, Washington, to east of the Distributing Reservoir, half a mile above Georgetown, D. C., 19 June, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to the Chain or Little Falls Bridge, two and a half miles above Georgetown, D. C., at 12 PM on 19 June, 1861, and arrived at Camp Banks, east of the Distributing Reservoir, half a mile above Georgetown, D. C., in the afternoon the same day.

Special Orders No.167, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Department of Washington, Washington, D. C., 2 July, 1861: The 2nd Michigan Infantry, the 3rd Michigan Infantry, the 1st Massachusetts Infantry, and the 12th New York Infantry were assigned to Colonel I B Richardson, 2nd Michigan Infantry, by Special Orders No.167, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Department of Washington, Washington, D. C., on 2 July, 1861.

East of the Distributing Reservoir, half a mile above Georgetown, D. C, to Great Falls, on the Potomac River, 8-15 July, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Companies I and K, under the command of Major C P Chandler, were stationed at Great Falls, on the Potomac River, between 8 and 15 July, 1861.

Note: The 8th District of Columbia Militia Battalion Infantry was stationed at Great Falls, on the Potomac River, between 21 June and 10 July, 1861 (See the Rockville Expedition).

General Orders No.13, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia, 8 July, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was assigned to the Fourth Brigade, First Division, McDowell's Army, under the command of Colonel I B Richardson, 2nd Michigan Infantry, by General Orders No.13, Headquarters, Department of Northeastern Virginia, Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia, on 8 July, 1861.

Note: A detachment of forty men of the 1st Massachusetts Infantry, Companies B and G, under the command of First Lieutenant G H Johnston, Company E, and Sergeant G Forrest, Company G, were assigned to Brethschneider's Battalion Light Infantry, under the command of Captian G R Brethschneider, 2nd Michigan Infantry, Company E, on 14 July, 1861 (See Brethschneider's Battalion Light Infantry).

Advance to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 16-18 July, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered across the Potomac River at the Chain or Little Falls Bridge, two and a half miles above Georgetown, D. C., at 3 PM on 16 July, 1861, and proceeded by the Leesburg & Georgetown Turnpike to Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day. The regiment arrived at Vienna via Langley, Lewinsville, and Old Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 9 PM on 16 July, 1861, and was ordered to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 8 AM on 17 July, 1861. The 1st Massachusetts Infantry arrived at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 10.30 AM the same day and was ordered to Germantown, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 11 AM on 17 July, 1861. The regiment was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 1 PM the same day and proceeded by the Warrenton Turnpike to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 7 AM on 18 July, 1861. The 1st Massachusetts Infantry arrived near Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 9 AM the same day.

Skirmish at Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 18 July, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to proceed by the road between Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, and Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, at 10 AM on 18 July, 1861, and was engaged in a skirmish at Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, between 12 PM and 4 PM the same day. The regiment was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the evening on 18 July, 1861.

Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 19-21 July, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the morning on 19 July, 1861, and was stationed near Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, between 19 and 21 July, 1861.

Retreat to Washington, D. C., 21-22 July, 1861: After the first battle of Bull Run the 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered near Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, on the road between Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, and Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 5.30 PM on 21 July, 1861, and proceeded to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 2 AM on 22 July, 1861. The regiment arrived at Chain Bridge, above Georgetown, D. C., via Annandale and Baily's Crossroads, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 12 PM the same day and was ordered across the Chain or Little Falls Bridge, two and a half miles above Georgetown, D. C., at 2 PM the same day. The 1st Massachusetts Infantry arrived at Camp Banks, near the Chain Bridge, Chain or Little Falls Bridge, two and a half miles above Georgetown, D. C., in the afternoon on 22 July, 1861.

Note: The 2nd United States Artillery, Light Company G, accompanied the 1st Massachusetts Infantry, the 2nd Michigan Infantry, the 3rd Michigan Infantry, and the 12th New York Infantry to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 5.30 PM on 21 July, 1861 (See the 2nd United States Artillery, Light Company G).

Low ground on the banks of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, opposite Arlington House, on Arlington Heights, Alexandria County, Virginia, , 23 July, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered across the Chain or Little Falls Bridge, two and a half miles above Georgetown, D. C., to the low ground on the banks of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, opposite Arlington House, on Arlington Heights, Alexandria County, Virginia, at 12 PM on 23 July, 1861.

Fort Albany, on Prospect Hill, near the tollgate on the Columbia Turnpike, 25 & 29 July, 1861: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was ordered to Fort Albany, on Prospect Hill, near the tollgate on the Columbia Turnpike, on 25 July, 1861, and was stationed at Fort Albany, on Prospect Hill, near the tollgate on the Columbia Turnpike, on 29 July, 1861 (See the United States Corps Engineers).

Note: The 1st United States Artillery, Light Company G, and the 5th United States Artillery, Light Company D, under the command of Captain C Griffin, 5th United States Artillery, Light Company D, were stationed at Fort Albany, on Prospect Hill, near the tollgate on the Columbia Turnpike, on 29 July, 1861.

Mustered out, Boston Common, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachussetts, 25 May, 1864: A detachment of forty-five men of the 1st Massachusetts Infantry not entitled to be mustered out were assigned to the 11th Massachusetts Infantry on 21 May, 1864, and the 1st Massachusetts Infantry, under the command of Colonel N B McLaughlin, was mustered out at Boston Common, Boston, Suffolk County, Massachussetts, in the afternoon on 25 May, 1864 (See the 11th Massachusetts Infantry).

Colonel I B Richardson, 2nd Michigan Infantry, Fourth Brigade, First division, Army of the Northeastern Virginia: Colonel I B Richardson, 2nd Michigan Infantry, was appointed brigadier general, United States Volunteers, by General Orders No.62, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D. C., on 20 August, 1861, dated 17 May, 1861 (See the 2nd Michigan Infantry).

Organisation of Brigadier General J Hooker's brigade, Division of the Potomac, 4 August, 1861: Brigadier General J Hooker, United States Volunteers; 1st Massachusetts Infantry; 11th Massachusetts Infantry; 2nd New Hampshire Infantry; 26th Pennsylvania Infantry

Note: The 1st Massachusetts Infantry was assigned to Brigadier General J Hooker's brigade, Division of the Potomac, by Special Orders No.10, Headquarters, Division of the Potomac, Washington, D. C., on 4 August, 1861.

Reports

OFFICIAL REPORT NO.28: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp373-377
Colonel I B Richardson, Second Michigan Infantry, Fourth Brigade, First Division, McDowell's Army, dated near Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia, 25 July, 1861

OFFICIAL REPORT NO.16: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp348-352
Brigadier General D Tyler, Connecticut Volunteers, First Division, McDowell's Army, dated Washington, D. C., 27 July, 1861